Discussion:
16.04 hangs at Ubuntu screen, then message appears
(too old to reply)
Eric Jackson
2020-09-04 20:09:58 UTC
Permalink
I'm having trouble booting on 16.04. Hangs at screen, then goes into
emergency boot mode. I input password, then use mount -a to find that
it cannot find a device. I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment out
the device, but I am unable to save the fstab changes (read only). How
can I get fstab to save? Thanks.
Mike Easter
2020-09-04 20:20:55 UTC
Permalink
I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment out the device, but I am
unable to save the fstab changes (read only).  How can I get fstab to save?
My mint 19.3 fstab permissions says root r&w. Sudo isn't root?

I've read that sudo isn't synonymous w/ root, but if I use sudo whoami
it says root.
--
Mike Easter
Aragorn
2020-09-04 20:43:28 UTC
Permalink
Post by Mike Easter
I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment out the device, but I am
unable to save the fstab changes (read only).  How can I get fstab to save?
My mint 19.3 fstab permissions says root r&w. Sudo isn't root?
I've read that sudo isn't synonymous w/ root, but if I use sudo
whoami it says root.
In most cases, if the kernel detects filesystem damage at boot time,
it'll mount the pertinent filesystem in read-only mode to prevent
further corruption.

OP: Check your installed root filesystem by way of a live medium, and
then after the fsck, edit its /etc/fstab as you intended.
--
With respect,
= Aragorn =
Eric Jackson
2020-09-04 23:18:44 UTC
Permalink
I'm having trouble booting on 16.04.  Hangs at screen, then goes into
emergency boot mode.  I input password, then use mount -a to find that
it cannot find a device.  I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment out
the device, but I am unable to save the fstab changes (read only).  How
can I get fstab to save?  Thanks.
I guess I'd better relate exactly what happened. I have two nearly
identical Dell 1545 laptops. One's motherboard burned out this week and
it is the main one I use with the other as standby, but the latter
hadn't been backed up in a long time. So, I used Clonezilla to transfer
drive to drive all the contents from the SSD to an external USB HDD of
the same size. Then, the plan was to take the HDD contents and replace
the contents of the current HDD in the standby laptop. All went well
except not there's ID errors (different drive ID's), etc and the standby
now won't boot because I'm trying to use the contents from the main
system.

I've had ID issues before, but so far what I've tried isn't getting
Ubuntu to boot. It reaches the Ubuntu screen and that's all. It's a
dual boot system, so either Win 10 or 16.04 is selected at start up. It
boots into Win 10 ok, but still hangs and goes into emergency boot at
start up. The error is "drive not found" I'm assuming because the ID
has changed.

Tried changing the fstab file from the Ubuntu Live CD, but now it boots
into Ubuntu and asking for password. When I enter the password, it just
asks all over again.

I tried a boot-recovery DVD and chose auto repair while in a live
session, but that didn't help either.

It's too bad there's not some way to auto change the ID's of whatever
has changed instead of trying and guessing to do it manually.

If all else fails, the new MB will be here in a week and I'll have to
just use the standby until then even though it's far slower with HDD and
less memory than the main unit.
Jonathan N. Little
2020-09-05 00:32:56 UTC
Permalink
I'm having trouble booting on 16.04.  Hangs at screen, then goes into
emergency boot mode.  I input password, then use mount -a to find that
it cannot find a device.  I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment
out the device, but I am unable to save the fstab changes (read
only).  How can I get fstab to save?  Thanks.
I guess I'd better relate exactly what happened.  I have two nearly
identical Dell 1545 laptops.  One's motherboard burned out this week and
it is the main one I use with the other as standby, but the latter
hadn't been backed up in a long time.  So, I used Clonezilla to transfer
drive to drive all the contents from the SSD to an external USB HDD of
the same size.  Then, the plan was to take the HDD contents and replace
the contents of the current HDD in the standby laptop.  All went well
except not there's ID errors (different drive ID's), etc and the standby
now won't boot because I'm trying to use the contents from the main system.
Okay let's get some clarification here.

1) You took dead laptop A's drive and clonezilla disk to disk to
external drive B. If so at this point all partitions UUIDs should be
identical for both A and B.

2) How did you copy B to spare laptop's drive C? Clonezilla, if so you
should not have UUID issues unless you only copied 1 partition and not
ALL partitions.

3) If all you wanted was what you had on laptop A but used Laptop C
which works, why not just put laptop A;s drive into Laptop C?

Pull the battery, remove the 2 screws, slide drive out and replace with
dead laptops drive. Easy peazy. No UUID futzing. BTW the laptops don't
have to be identical for this to work.
I've had ID issues before, but so far what I've tried isn't getting
Ubuntu to boot.  It reaches the Ubuntu screen and that's all.  It's a
dual boot system, so either Win 10 or 16.04 is selected at start up.  It
boots into Win 10 ok, but still hangs and goes into emergency boot at
start up.  The error is "drive not found" I'm assuming because the ID
has changed.
Tried changing the fstab file from the Ubuntu Live CD, but now it boots
into Ubuntu and asking for password.  When I enter the password, it just
asks all over again.
When you copied files of profile over, you may have changed all or some
to the root user. Then you will not be able to login to your profile.

Do you only have one user profile on the system, if so your ID will be
1000.

Boot with a live session

Mount the home partition, it will mount under
/media/ubuntu/SOME_UUID_FOR_PARTITION

Open a terminal

cd /media/ubuntu/SOME_UUID_FOR_PARTITION/home

*make sure your in the home directory!!!*

command ls better return:
lost+found eric


I going to assume your home directory is named "eric" so change
ownership with command

sudo chown -Rv 1000:1000 eric

Yes you have to use sudo, but live session user's password is blank, I
have included the verbose stitch so you can see the progress.
I tried a boot-recovery DVD and chose auto repair while in a live
session, but that didn't help either.
It's too bad there's not some way to auto change the ID's of whatever
has changed instead of trying and guessing to do it manually.
There is, tune2fs, but if all you want is your old system's on the spare
laptop, just swap drives.
If all else fails, the new MB will be here in a week and I'll have to
just use the standby until then even though it's far slower with HDD and
less memory than the main unit.
Swap drive, and swap memory, also easy to install on a Dell.
--
Take care,

Jonathan
-------------------
LITTLE WORKS STUDIO
http://www.LittleWorksStudio.com
Eric Jackson
2020-09-05 01:09:03 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
I'm having trouble booting on 16.04.  Hangs at screen, then goes into
emergency boot mode.  I input password, then use mount -a to find that
it cannot find a device.  I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment
out the device, but I am unable to save the fstab changes (read
only).  How can I get fstab to save?  Thanks.
I guess I'd better relate exactly what happened.  I have two nearly
identical Dell 1545 laptops.  One's motherboard burned out this week and
it is the main one I use with the other as standby, but the latter
hadn't been backed up in a long time.  So, I used Clonezilla to transfer
drive to drive all the contents from the SSD to an external USB HDD of
the same size.  Then, the plan was to take the HDD contents and replace
the contents of the current HDD in the standby laptop.  All went well
except not there's ID errors (different drive ID's), etc and the standby
now won't boot because I'm trying to use the contents from the main system.
Okay let's get some clarification here.
1) You took dead laptop A's drive and clonezilla disk to disk to
external drive B. If so at this point all partitions UUIDs should be
identical for both A and B.
The main laptop (I'll call A) has a fast SSD drive. Since the MB
failed, I used Clonezilla to copy the contents of "A" to an external USB
HDD of the same size (I'll call this C). ***I should point out that
there was an error message as Clonezilla reported errors (two of the
smaller partitions wouldn't copy correctly). I took note of this and
pressed on.

The reason I wanted to make a copy of the laptop A is because it has
quite a few programs I wanted to use without having to reinstall.

After the copy to C was made, I then proceeded to use Clonezilla once
again to transfer the hard drive contents from the spare laptop "B" onto
the fast SSD drive (just to get a far faster drive as I only have one
SSD drive). I then reinstalled the SSD drive into laptop B and also
upgraded/ transplanted the memory sticks from the now dead A laptop.

However, just essentially reloading all of the data from B's HDD onto
the SSD of course didn't update anything, but I just wanted to try it.
No errors here and I could reinstall missing programs if I had to.

However, I really wanted all of drives data and programs from the main
laptop A, but when I have tried to transfer from C back into B, which
now has the SSD, that's when I get the errors on boot up.

I think whatever errors happened occurred at some point during initial
back up of A's SSD drive as Clonezilla reported. Maybe when the MB
burned out, it did some damage to the data.

I have a screen shot of what I get when trying to boot into Ubuntu now:


Loading Image...
Post by Jonathan N. Little
2) How did you copy B to spare laptop's drive C? Clonezilla, if so you
should not have UUID issues unless you only copied 1 partition and not
ALL partitions.
See above. Yes, all partitions.
Post by Jonathan N. Little
3) If all you wanted was what you had on laptop A but used Laptop C
which works, why not just put laptop A;s drive into Laptop C?
I tried this initially, but the screen was not correct because each
laptop has a different screen. I was going to add a couple more
resolutions, but got the Clonezilla error and haven't been able to
access since.
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Pull the battery, remove the 2 screws, slide drive out and replace with
dead laptops drive. Easy peazy. No UUID futzing. BTW the laptops don't
have to be identical for this to work.
Luckily, I do have a more recent backup of the SSD in the main laptop,
but even its data is several months old. Still, I might just try it and
see if I get the same error as above.

I must say I am really disappointed in this motherboard. I already
replaced it once just under two years ago with a new one and now this
one has gone too. I tried all the troubleshooting to see if there was
something that might have caused it to be dead, but to no avail. These
Dell's seem really sensitive to their chargers/ power supplies. If I
switch chargers, even though they look identical and have identical
voltage, I get yellow or red flashing lights almost as if the power
supplies were matched somehow to the laptop.
Post by Jonathan N. Little
I've had ID issues before, but so far what I've tried isn't getting
Ubuntu to boot.  It reaches the Ubuntu screen and that's all.  It's a
dual boot system, so either Win 10 or 16.04 is selected at start up.  It
boots into Win 10 ok, but still hangs and goes into emergency boot at
start up.  The error is "drive not found" I'm assuming because the ID
has changed.
Tried changing the fstab file from the Ubuntu Live CD, but now it boots
into Ubuntu and asking for password.  When I enter the password, it just
asks all over again.
When you copied files of profile over, you may have changed all or some
to the root user. Then you will not be able to login to your profile.
Do you only have one user profile on the system, if so your ID will be
1000.
Boot with a live session
Mount the home partition, it will mount under
/media/ubuntu/SOME_UUID_FOR_PARTITION
Open a terminal
cd /media/ubuntu/SOME_UUID_FOR_PARTITION/home
*make sure your in the home directory!!!*
lost+found eric
I going to assume your home directory is named "eric" so change
ownership with command
sudo chown -Rv 1000:1000 eric
Yes you have to use sudo, but live session user's password is blank, I
have included the verbose stitch so you can see the progress.
I tried a boot-recovery DVD and chose auto repair while in a live
session, but that didn't help either.
It's too bad there's not some way to auto change the ID's of whatever
has changed instead of trying and guessing to do it manually.
There is, tune2fs, but if all you want is your old system's on the spare
laptop, just swap drives.
If all else fails, the new MB will be here in a week and I'll have to
just use the standby until then even though it's far slower with HDD and
less memory than the main unit.
Swap drive, and swap memory, also easy to install on a Dell.
Jonathan N. Little
2020-09-05 02:08:41 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
I'm having trouble booting on 16.04.  Hangs at screen, then goes into
emergency boot mode.  I input password, then use mount -a to find that
it cannot find a device.  I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment
out the device, but I am unable to save the fstab changes (read
only).  How can I get fstab to save?  Thanks.
I guess I'd better relate exactly what happened.  I have two nearly
identical Dell 1545 laptops.  One's motherboard burned out this week and
it is the main one I use with the other as standby, but the latter
hadn't been backed up in a long time.  So, I used Clonezilla to transfer
drive to drive all the contents from the SSD to an external USB HDD of
the same size.  Then, the plan was to take the HDD contents and replace
the contents of the current HDD in the standby laptop.  All went well
except not there's ID errors (different drive ID's), etc and the standby
now won't boot because I'm trying to use the contents from the main system.
Okay let's get some clarification here.
1) You took dead laptop A's drive and clonezilla disk to disk to
external drive B. If so at this point all partitions UUIDs should be
identical for both A and B.
The main laptop (I'll call A) has a fast SSD drive.  Since the MB
failed, I used Clonezilla to copy the contents of "A" to an external USB
HDD of the same size (I'll call this C). ***I should point out that
there was an error message as Clonezilla reported errors (two of the
smaller partitions wouldn't copy correctly).  I took note of this and
pressed on.
The reason I wanted to make a copy of the laptop A is because it has
quite a few programs I wanted to use without having to reinstall.
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.

2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix filesystems on
SSD.

3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.

These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>

Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
--
Take care,

Jonathan
-------------------
LITTLE WORKS STUDIO
http://www.LittleWorksStudio.com
Eric Jackson
2020-09-05 03:59:46 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated. I brought out the most recent
back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device clone using
Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop. That back up works
fine, no boot up issues.

What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive over
to the SSD. Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the troubled
hard drive.

While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external USB
drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions. Have tried
viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition. Any
thoughts here would be welcome.
Paul
2020-09-05 07:08:54 UTC
Permalink
Post by Eric Jackson
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated. I brought out the most recent
back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device clone using
Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop. That back up works
fine, no boot up issues.
What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive over
to the SSD. Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the troubled
hard drive.
While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external USB
drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions. Have tried
viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition. Any
thoughts here would be welcome.
disktype # this will return the installation invocation
# the program is tiny, the download time short...
# Note - this is a readout program, it does not
# make any changes to the disk drive.

sudo disktype /dev/sda # dumps details about the partitions

sudo disktype /dev/sda1 # Don't panic if a crazy answer comes back.
# This is just a test to see if it can "sniff"
# the filesystem in the partition. It should see
# the file system header in the first sector and
# not jump to any stupid conclusions.
# Since you put Win on there, at least on GPT
# there is a 16MB partition it *cannot* make sense of.

Try that and see if the partitions are listed as you expect them.

gnome-disks # is another utility which displays partitions.
# A minor bug got fixed in 20.04.

Remember to exit "gparted" before trying to mount stuff!
I made that mistake today myself, and gave myself a little scare.
Then I remembered "oh yeah, gparted is still open". Make sure
gparted is closed, before freaking out when a partition won't
mount.

If the file manager lists the partitions in "Other Locations"
menu item, then you can click on them to mount them.

I don't recommend mounting partitions manually, because...
it's boring. It's got nothing to do with what year it is,
we've typed that shit for too many years now. There are
good reasons to be doing custom mount commands, but not
as a replacement for the automounter. That would be
"sad panda" material if that is necessary. If I need
a loopback mount with a 64 bit offset, that's a good
reason to be command-lining it. Sure, everyone should
eventually learn the mount command, but... when there's
a good reason for it. I don't sense "defeat" at the moment.
We just have to figure out how you broke it :-)

One thing you have to watch, is you can put mounts on
top of one another. It's a kind of stupid pet trick.
I made that mistake in the last week too. Was a little
careless, didn't do a umount, mounted another partition,
then later, the contents didn't seem to be what I
expected. And I looked back at my sequence of commands
and could see I missed one. Perils of mounting manually
on /mnt. Using the GUI, that would not have happened.

Paul
Eric Jackson
2020-09-05 13:59:42 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated.  I brought out the most recent
back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device clone
using Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop.  That back
up works fine, no boot up issues.
What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive
over to the SSD.  Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the
troubled hard drive.
While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external USB
drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions.  Have tried
viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition.  Any
thoughts here would be welcome.
disktype                 # this will return the installation invocation
                         # the program is tiny, the download time short...
                         # Note - this is a readout program, it does not
                         # make any changes to the disk drive.
sudo disktype /dev/sda   # dumps details about the partitions
sudo disktype /dev/sda1  # Don't panic if a crazy answer comes back.
                         # This is just a test to see if it can "sniff"
                         # the filesystem in the partition. It should see
                         # the file system header in the first sector and
                         # not jump to any stupid conclusions.
                         # Since you put Win on there, at least on GPT
                         # there is a 16MB partition it *cannot* make
sense of.
Try that and see if the partitions are listed as you expect them.
gnome-disks              # is another utility which displays partitions.
                         # A minor bug got fixed in 20.04.
Remember to exit "gparted" before trying to mount stuff!
I made that mistake today myself, and gave myself a little scare.
Then I remembered "oh yeah, gparted is still open". Make sure
gparted is closed, before freaking out when a partition won't
mount.
If the file manager lists the partitions in "Other Locations"
menu item, then you can click on them to mount them.
I don't recommend mounting partitions manually, because...
it's boring. It's got nothing to do with what year it is,
we've typed that shit for too many years now. There are
good reasons to be doing custom mount commands, but not
as a replacement for the automounter. That would be
"sad panda" material if that is necessary. If I need
a loopback mount with a 64 bit offset, that's a good
reason to be command-lining it. Sure, everyone should
eventually learn the mount command, but... when there's
a good reason for it. I don't sense "defeat" at the moment.
We just have to figure out how you broke it :-)
One thing you have to watch, is you can put mounts on
top of one another. It's a kind of stupid pet trick.
I made that mistake in the last week too. Was a little
careless, didn't do a umount, mounted another partition,
then later, the contents didn't seem to be what I
expected. And I looked back at my sequence of commands
and could see I missed one. Perils of mounting manually
on /mnt. Using the GUI, that would not have happened.
   Paul
Now this is odd. I took the data I cloned to the external USB drive and
plugged it into my desktop, also running 16.04. Unlike the working
laptop where I could only see the Win partition, I can see all of the
partitions now on this desktop. Now to try and compare what I have
installed here on this Ubuntu partition and compare with the back up I
installed to the spare laptop. Not sure how to go about it. Basically,
since the most recent back up for the laptop I installed was a month
old, I wanted to compare that data (on the laptop) with the data I am
now accessing on the external USB drive, which contains the most recent
data (just a day or two old).
Eric Jackson
2020-09-05 14:40:51 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix
filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated.  I brought out the most recent
back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device clone
using Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop.  That back
up works fine, no boot up issues.
What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive
over to the SSD.  Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the
troubled hard drive.
While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external USB
drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions.  Have tried
viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition.  Any
thoughts here would be welcome.
disktype                 # this will return the installation invocation
                          # the program is tiny, the download time
short...
                          # Note - this is a readout program, it does not
                          # make any changes to the disk drive.
sudo disktype /dev/sda   # dumps details about the partitions
sudo disktype /dev/sda1  # Don't panic if a crazy answer comes back.
                          # This is just a test to see if it can "sniff"
                          # the filesystem in the partition. It should
see
                          # the file system header in the first sector
and
                          # not jump to any stupid conclusions.
                          # Since you put Win on there, at least on GPT
                          # there is a 16MB partition it *cannot* make
sense of.
Try that and see if the partitions are listed as you expect them.
gnome-disks              # is another utility which displays partitions.
                          # A minor bug got fixed in 20.04.
Remember to exit "gparted" before trying to mount stuff!
I made that mistake today myself, and gave myself a little scare.
Then I remembered "oh yeah, gparted is still open". Make sure
gparted is closed, before freaking out when a partition won't
mount.
If the file manager lists the partitions in "Other Locations"
menu item, then you can click on them to mount them.
I don't recommend mounting partitions manually, because...
it's boring. It's got nothing to do with what year it is,
we've typed that shit for too many years now. There are
good reasons to be doing custom mount commands, but not
as a replacement for the automounter. That would be
"sad panda" material if that is necessary. If I need
a loopback mount with a 64 bit offset, that's a good
reason to be command-lining it. Sure, everyone should
eventually learn the mount command, but... when there's
a good reason for it. I don't sense "defeat" at the moment.
We just have to figure out how you broke it :-)
One thing you have to watch, is you can put mounts on
top of one another. It's a kind of stupid pet trick.
I made that mistake in the last week too. Was a little
careless, didn't do a umount, mounted another partition,
then later, the contents didn't seem to be what I
expected. And I looked back at my sequence of commands
and could see I missed one. Perils of mounting manually
on /mnt. Using the GUI, that would not have happened.
    Paul
Now this is odd.  I took the data I cloned to the external USB drive and
plugged it into my desktop, also running 16.04.  Unlike the working
laptop where I could only see the Win partition, I can see all of the
partitions now on this desktop.  Now to try and compare what I have
installed here on this Ubuntu partition and compare with the back up I
installed to the spare laptop.  Not sure how to go about it.  Basically,
since the most recent back up for the laptop I installed was a month
old, I wanted to compare that data (on the laptop) with the data I am
now accessing on the external USB drive, which contains the most recent
data (just a day or two old).
Well, having access to the Ubuntu partition, I did a search using

cd /media/eric/97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb/home

Nothing comes up. The desktop folder should have shown up. Looks like
whatever happened may have wiped out my desktop. I can do a .desktop
search and programs I had installed come up, but if I try searching for
jpg or txt files I had on there, nothing comes up (whether I do specific
or wildcard jpg or txt searches).


Another woe I should share. After the main laptop's MB burned out and I
powered up the spare, I kept getting scrolling characters and boot ups
into Ubuntu were difficult. I went through this several times and
finally disassembled to reveal that I must have spilled something on the
keyboard at some point as I could see large water stains. I switched
out keyboards with a spare one I had and no further issues BUT it was
behaving this way while I was trying to use my main laptop's drive in
it. I think the behavior ended up damaging the main's SSD contents
because I had to boot many times to try and figure out what was wrong.
Kirk_Von_Rockstein
2020-09-05 14:56:13 UTC
Permalink
On 2020-09-05, Eric Jackson <***@erolys.com> wrote:
<snip>
Post by Eric Jackson
I think the behavior ended up damaging the main's SSD contents
because I had to boot many times to try and figure out what was wrong.
You should run e2fsck -vfy /dev/sdXx on the partitions/filesystem
on this drive and those that have been cloned from it.
Jonathan N. Little
2020-09-05 18:35:16 UTC
Permalink
Post by Eric Jackson
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix
filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated.  I brought out the most
recent back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device
clone using Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop. 
That back up works fine, no boot up issues.
What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive
over to the SSD.  Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the
troubled hard drive.
While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external
USB drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions.  Have
tried viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition. 
Any thoughts here would be welcome.
disktype                 # this will return the installation invocation
                          # the program is tiny, the download time
short...
                          # Note - this is a readout program, it does
not
                          # make any changes to the disk drive.
sudo disktype /dev/sda   # dumps details about the partitions
sudo disktype /dev/sda1  # Don't panic if a crazy answer comes back.
                          # This is just a test to see if it can "sniff"
                          # the filesystem in the partition. It
should see
                          # the file system header in the first
sector and
                          # not jump to any stupid conclusions.
                          # Since you put Win on there, at least on GPT
                          # there is a 16MB partition it *cannot*
make sense of.
Try that and see if the partitions are listed as you expect them.
gnome-disks              # is another utility which displays partitions.
                          # A minor bug got fixed in 20.04.
Remember to exit "gparted" before trying to mount stuff!
I made that mistake today myself, and gave myself a little scare.
Then I remembered "oh yeah, gparted is still open". Make sure
gparted is closed, before freaking out when a partition won't
mount.
If the file manager lists the partitions in "Other Locations"
menu item, then you can click on them to mount them.
I don't recommend mounting partitions manually, because...
it's boring. It's got nothing to do with what year it is,
we've typed that shit for too many years now. There are
good reasons to be doing custom mount commands, but not
as a replacement for the automounter. That would be
"sad panda" material if that is necessary. If I need
a loopback mount with a 64 bit offset, that's a good
reason to be command-lining it. Sure, everyone should
eventually learn the mount command, but... when there's
a good reason for it. I don't sense "defeat" at the moment.
We just have to figure out how you broke it :-)
One thing you have to watch, is you can put mounts on
top of one another. It's a kind of stupid pet trick.
I made that mistake in the last week too. Was a little
careless, didn't do a umount, mounted another partition,
then later, the contents didn't seem to be what I
expected. And I looked back at my sequence of commands
and could see I missed one. Perils of mounting manually
on /mnt. Using the GUI, that would not have happened.
    Paul
Now this is odd.  I took the data I cloned to the external USB drive
and plugged it into my desktop, also running 16.04.  Unlike the
working laptop where I could only see the Win partition, I can see all
of the partitions now on this desktop.  Now to try and compare what I
have installed here on this Ubuntu partition and compare with the back
up I installed to the spare laptop.  Not sure how to go about it. 
Basically, since the most recent back up for the laptop I installed
was a month old, I wanted to compare that data (on the laptop) with
the data I am now accessing on the external USB drive, which contains
the most recent data (just a day or two old).
Well, having access to the Ubuntu partition, I did a search using
cd /media/eric/97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb/home
Nothing comes up.  The desktop folder should have shown up.  Looks like
whatever happened may have wiped out my desktop. 
IMPORTANT QUESTION: Did you have your home on a separate partition? If
so the first partition have the root typically /dev/sda1 with ONLY have
the mount point directory:

/home

and some other partition will have the actual profiles.

Post the original fstab

Here is an example of / on one drive a SSD and /home on another spinner

# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=a171626a-c096-4630-87aa-41f0de31a1f8 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /home was on /dev/sdb1 during installation
UUID=5f1fb0e1-a9d1-47fe-8e20-91fa4ac8a299 /home ext4 defaults 0 2
Post by Eric Jackson
I can do a .desktop search and programs I had installed come up, but
if I try searching for jpg or txt files I had on there, nothing comes
up (whether I do specific or wildcard jpg or txt searches).
I bet it is on another partition.
--
Take care,

Jonathan
-------------------
LITTLE WORKS STUDIO
http://www.LittleWorksStudio.com
Eric Jackson
2020-09-05 22:26:42 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Post by Eric Jackson
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix
filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated.  I brought out the most
recent back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device
clone using Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop.
That back up works fine, no boot up issues.
What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive
over to the SSD.  Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the
troubled hard drive.
While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external
USB drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions.  Have
tried viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition.
Any thoughts here would be welcome.
disktype                 # this will return the installation invocation
                          # the program is tiny, the download time
short...
                          # Note - this is a readout program, it does
not
                          # make any changes to the disk drive.
sudo disktype /dev/sda   # dumps details about the partitions
sudo disktype /dev/sda1  # Don't panic if a crazy answer comes back.
                          # This is just a test to see if it can "sniff"
                          # the filesystem in the partition. It
should see
                          # the file system header in the first
sector and
                          # not jump to any stupid conclusions.
                          # Since you put Win on there, at least on GPT
                          # there is a 16MB partition it *cannot*
make sense of.
Try that and see if the partitions are listed as you expect them.
gnome-disks              # is another utility which displays partitions.
                          # A minor bug got fixed in 20.04.
Remember to exit "gparted" before trying to mount stuff!
I made that mistake today myself, and gave myself a little scare.
Then I remembered "oh yeah, gparted is still open". Make sure
gparted is closed, before freaking out when a partition won't
mount.
If the file manager lists the partitions in "Other Locations"
menu item, then you can click on them to mount them.
I don't recommend mounting partitions manually, because...
it's boring. It's got nothing to do with what year it is,
we've typed that shit for too many years now. There are
good reasons to be doing custom mount commands, but not
as a replacement for the automounter. That would be
"sad panda" material if that is necessary. If I need
a loopback mount with a 64 bit offset, that's a good
reason to be command-lining it. Sure, everyone should
eventually learn the mount command, but... when there's
a good reason for it. I don't sense "defeat" at the moment.
We just have to figure out how you broke it :-)
One thing you have to watch, is you can put mounts on
top of one another. It's a kind of stupid pet trick.
I made that mistake in the last week too. Was a little
careless, didn't do a umount, mounted another partition,
then later, the contents didn't seem to be what I
expected. And I looked back at my sequence of commands
and could see I missed one. Perils of mounting manually
on /mnt. Using the GUI, that would not have happened.
    Paul
Now this is odd.  I took the data I cloned to the external USB drive
and plugged it into my desktop, also running 16.04.  Unlike the
working laptop where I could only see the Win partition, I can see all
of the partitions now on this desktop.  Now to try and compare what I
have installed here on this Ubuntu partition and compare with the back
up I installed to the spare laptop.  Not sure how to go about it.
Basically, since the most recent back up for the laptop I installed
was a month old, I wanted to compare that data (on the laptop) with
the data I am now accessing on the external USB drive, which contains
the most recent data (just a day or two old).
Well, having access to the Ubuntu partition, I did a search using
cd /media/eric/97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb/home
Nothing comes up.  The desktop folder should have shown up.  Looks like
whatever happened may have wiped out my desktop.
IMPORTANT QUESTION: Did you have your home on a separate partition? If
so the first partition have the root typically /dev/sda1 with ONLY have
/home
and some other partition will have the actual profiles.
Post the original fstab
Ok, there is the fstab. Please see note below

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
# / was on /dev/sda6 during installation
UUID=97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb / ext4
errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /boot was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=e3d103e8-6b84-4e14-b476-3c568ce26e8d /boot ext4
defaults 0 2
# /home was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9 /home ext4
defaults 0 2
# swap was on /dev/sda8 during installation
UUID=56a766dc-1a78-433f-bf45-7353a959a237 none swap sw
0 0

After I started see boot up fail and go into emergency boot, I did mount
-a and the UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9 /home was not
found. This is why I think it was corrupted somehow. You can also see
an error reported for

UUID=97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb / ext4
errors=remount-ro 0 1

Once I was finally able to not just edit, but also save fstab changes
form the Live CD, I tried first commenting out UUID=97bb.... first and
would still get the emergency boot. Then I commented out the UUID=b71....

The laptop would then boot into what looked like a brand new Ubuntu.
However, there was the log in screen (something I normally don't use at
boot up). I logged in with my password and it simply would ask me to
log in again. Once I no longer commented out UUID=b71..., I would then
get the emergency boot message once again.

I think whatever I had on Home, which should have also been anything on
the desktop, is gone. Maybe I'm wrong.
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Here is an example of / on one drive a SSD and /home on another spinner
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=a171626a-c096-4630-87aa-41f0de31a1f8 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /home was on /dev/sdb1 during installation
UUID=5f1fb0e1-a9d1-47fe-8e20-91fa4ac8a299 /home ext4 defaults 0 2
Post by Eric Jackson
I can do a .desktop search and programs I had installed come up, but
if I try searching for jpg or txt files I had on there, nothing comes
up (whether I do specific or wildcard jpg or txt searches).
I bet it is on another partition.
Jonathan N. Little
2020-09-06 03:59:02 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Post by Eric Jackson
Post by Jonathan N. Little
1) Why bother coping, just swap the drive. Put A's SSD into the working
laptop B. Forego the external drive C all together.
2) If there are possible errors, after swapping disks, boot a live
session Ubuntu and user Gparted to check and possibly fix filesystems on
SSD.
3) If you have unique data on original laptop B's drive either use an
sata usb adapter/dock to copy unique to laptop B with SSD.
These cheapo adapters work fine for 2.5 sata drives
<https://www.ebay.com/i/402276844712?chn=ps&norover=1&mkevt=1&mkrid=711-117182-37290-0&mkcid=2&itemid=402276844712&targetid=934793864136&device=c&mktype=pla&googleloc=9008356&poi=&campaignid=10876471603&mkgroupid=107964302620&rlsatarget=pla-934793864136&abcId=9300401&merchantid=101687330&gclid=EAIaIQobChMIieyX8vbQ6wIVSsDICh08bQghEAQYAiABEgILpfD_BwE>
Or copy unique Laptop B's data to external C before swapping drives.
Yeah, I'm making this too complicated.  I brought out the most
recent back up of the main laptop and just finished a device-device
clone using Clonezilla over to the SSD I now have in the laptop.
That back up works fine, no boot up issues.
What I'm trying to do now is transfer any files from the USB drive
over to the SSD.  Remember that I had used Clonezilla to clone the
troubled hard drive.
While I can see the Windows 10 files clear enough on the external
USB drive, I can't seem to see any of the Ubuntu partitions.  Have
tried viewing in both Win 10 and 16.04, just see the Win partition.
Any thoughts here would be welcome.
disktype                 # this will return the installation
invocation
                           # the program is tiny, the download time
short...
                           # Note - this is a readout program, it does
not
                           # make any changes to the disk drive.
sudo disktype /dev/sda   # dumps details about the partitions
sudo disktype /dev/sda1  # Don't panic if a crazy answer comes back.
                           # This is just a test to see if it can
"sniff"
                           # the filesystem in the partition. It
should see
                           # the file system header in the first
sector and
                           # not jump to any stupid conclusions.
                           # Since you put Win on there, at least
on GPT
                           # there is a 16MB partition it *cannot*
make sense of.
Try that and see if the partitions are listed as you expect them.
gnome-disks              # is another utility which displays
partitions.
                           # A minor bug got fixed in 20.04.
Remember to exit "gparted" before trying to mount stuff!
I made that mistake today myself, and gave myself a little scare.
Then I remembered "oh yeah, gparted is still open". Make sure
gparted is closed, before freaking out when a partition won't
mount.
If the file manager lists the partitions in "Other Locations"
menu item, then you can click on them to mount them.
I don't recommend mounting partitions manually, because...
it's boring. It's got nothing to do with what year it is,
we've typed that shit for too many years now. There are
good reasons to be doing custom mount commands, but not
as a replacement for the automounter. That would be
"sad panda" material if that is necessary. If I need
a loopback mount with a 64 bit offset, that's a good
reason to be command-lining it. Sure, everyone should
eventually learn the mount command, but... when there's
a good reason for it. I don't sense "defeat" at the moment.
We just have to figure out how you broke it :-)
One thing you have to watch, is you can put mounts on
top of one another. It's a kind of stupid pet trick.
I made that mistake in the last week too. Was a little
careless, didn't do a umount, mounted another partition,
then later, the contents didn't seem to be what I
expected. And I looked back at my sequence of commands
and could see I missed one. Perils of mounting manually
on /mnt. Using the GUI, that would not have happened.
     Paul
Now this is odd.  I took the data I cloned to the external USB drive
and plugged it into my desktop, also running 16.04.  Unlike the
working laptop where I could only see the Win partition, I can see all
of the partitions now on this desktop.  Now to try and compare what I
have installed here on this Ubuntu partition and compare with the back
up I installed to the spare laptop.  Not sure how to go about it.
Basically, since the most recent back up for the laptop I installed
was a month old, I wanted to compare that data (on the laptop) with
the data I am now accessing on the external USB drive, which contains
the most recent data (just a day or two old).
Well, having access to the Ubuntu partition, I did a search using
cd /media/eric/97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb/home
Nothing comes up.  The desktop folder should have shown up.  Looks like
whatever happened may have wiped out my desktop.
IMPORTANT QUESTION: Did you have your home on a separate partition? If
so the first partition have the root typically /dev/sda1 with ONLY have
/home
and some other partition will have the actual profiles.
Post the original fstab
Ok, there is the fstab.  Please see note below
# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid' to print the universally unique identifier for a
# device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name devices
# that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
# / was on /dev/sda6 during installation
UUID=97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb /               ext4
errors=remount-ro 0       1
# /boot was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=e3d103e8-6b84-4e14-b476-3c568ce26e8d /boot           ext4
defaults        0       2
# /home was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9 /home           ext4
defaults        0       2
Okay there you go, your home is on a different partition. You have to
mount that partition to bt your data.
# swap was on /dev/sda8 during installation
UUID=56a766dc-1a78-433f-bf45-7353a959a237 none            swap    sw
         0       0
After I started see boot up fail and go into emergency boot, I did mount
-a and the UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9 /home was not
found.  This is why I think it was corrupted somehow.  You can also see
an error reported for
UUID=97bbfe38-d233-4e91-9477-49ca9edf31cb /               ext4
errors=remount-ro 0       1
Once I was finally able to not just edit, but also save fstab changes
form the Live CD, I tried first commenting out UUID=97bb.... first and
would still get the emergency boot.  Then I commented out the UUID=b71....
The laptop would then boot into what looked like a brand new Ubuntu.
However, there was the log in screen (something I normally don't use at
boot up).  I logged in with my password and it simply would ask me to
log in again.  Once I no longer commented out UUID=b71..., I would then
get the emergency boot message once again.
Of course you only has the /boot partition loaded, no system or home.
I think whatever I had on Home, which should have also been anything on
the desktop, is gone.  Maybe I'm wrong.
What you need to do was to use the Live Session to use Gparted to check
filesystem. /dev/sda7 UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, your
home partition. That is the one that is really important. You can always
spin up a fresh install and just copy that home partition to the new
install and get a working system with all your data (if you can fix
UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, this should be your priority)
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Here is an example of / on one drive a SSD and /home on another spinner
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=a171626a-c096-4630-87aa-41f0de31a1f8 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /home was on /dev/sdb1 during installation
UUID=5f1fb0e1-a9d1-47fe-8e20-91fa4ac8a299 /home ext4 defaults   0   2
Post by Eric Jackson
I can do a .desktop search and programs I had installed come up, but
if I try searching for jpg or txt files I had on there, nothing comes
up (whether I do specific or wildcard jpg or txt searches).
I bet it is on another partition.
.desktop files will mostly be on / partition under /usr/share

.jpg is your data and would be on the /home partition.
--
Take care,

Jonathan
-------------------
LITTLE WORKS STUDIO
http://www.LittleWorksStudio.com
Eric Jackson
2020-09-06 13:26:59 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
What you need to do was to use the Live Session to use Gparted to check
filesystem. /dev/sda7 UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, your
home partition. That is the one that is really important. You can always
spin up a fresh install and just copy that home partition to the new
install and get a working system with all your data (if you can fix
UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, this should be your priority)
Right now, I have the drive in question backed up to the external USB
hard drive of the same size. I have Gparted installed on my main
desktop and, after plugging in the USB drive, ran it. It shows the
partitions, but a red exclamation point and unknown file system for
sda7. When I right click to view information, I get

Warning
Unable to detect file system! Possible reasons are:
- The file system is damaged
- The file system is unknown to GParted
- There is no file system available (unformatted)
- The device entry /dev/sdg7 is missing

I'm not sure how to use Gparted to repair. Do I need to reinstall the
data back to the laptop hard drive (and repair using Gparted from Live
CD), or can I use the Gparted already installed on my desktop to repair
it right now with the USB drive plugged into the desktop?
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Here is an example of / on one drive a SSD and /home on another spinner
# / was on /dev/sda1 during installation
UUID=a171626a-c096-4630-87aa-41f0de31a1f8 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# /home was on /dev/sdb1 during installation
UUID=5f1fb0e1-a9d1-47fe-8e20-91fa4ac8a299 /home ext4 defaults   0   2
Post by Eric Jackson
I can do a .desktop search and programs I had installed come up, but
if I try searching for jpg or txt files I had on there, nothing comes
up (whether I do specific or wildcard jpg or txt searches).
I bet it is on another partition.
.desktop files will mostly be on / partition under /usr/share
.jpg is your data and would be on the /home partition.
Jonathan N. Little
2020-09-06 16:23:46 UTC
Permalink
Post by Eric Jackson
Post by Jonathan N. Little
What you need to do was to use the Live Session to use Gparted to check
filesystem.  /dev/sda7 UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, your
home partition. That is the one that is really important. You can always
spin up a fresh install and just copy that home partition to the new
install and get a working system with all your data (if you can fix
UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, this should be your priority)
Right now, I have the drive in question backed up to the external USB
hard drive of the same size.  I have Gparted installed on my main
desktop and, after plugging in the USB drive, ran it.  It shows the
partitions, but a red exclamation point and unknown file system for
sda7.  When I right click to view information, I get
Warning
- The file system is damaged
- The file system is unknown to GParted
- There is no file system available (unformatted)
- The device entry /dev/sdg7 is missing
I'm not sure how to use Gparted to repair.  Do I need to reinstall the
data back to the laptop hard drive (and repair using Gparted from Live
CD), or can I use the Gparted already installed on my desktop to repair
it right now with the USB drive plugged into the desktop?
Okay FIRST if I understand you, you are testing the clonezilla COPY of
the original drive. If so, this is NOT what you ant to do since you said
during the clone you received an error message that you ignored. You
need to work on the ORIGINAL drive. You didn't overwrite the the
original did you? If so, you are most likely screwed.

I have rescued many systems with failing hard drives.

First try to clone it ASAP.

If clone fails because of filesystem corruption try live session and
check partition with Gparted of fsck because with live session the
partition is not mounted

If drive is physically damaged, power down immediately! Running it will
further reduce you chances of recovery. Get a new drive. Spin up a new
install. Get a fresh install working.

Don't bother with the '/' partition you can always reinstall whatever
you had(*). It is always faster if you can add the failing drive to the
system over using a USB option. Desktop makes this simple, but often you
can temporarily use a desktop to do this. I prefer to do this with a
live session than coping over files WHILE logged in on that profile.
Just make sure which drive is which! When you do the live session you
have to maintain permissions.

What I do is make mount points /old & /new in the live session and for
this example /home on old is /dev/sdb7 and your new would be /dev/sda7
assuming you kept the same partition arrangement.

#Mount each:

sudo mount /dev/sdb7 /old

sudo mount /dev/sda7 /new

# This will make it clear which way you are copying. You can use tar to
grab all the undamaged files

cd /old

# Note I am in /old, but putting tar in root removing the /old/ from path

sudo tar -czf /xfer.gz eric

#Move to new

cd /new

sudo tar -xf xfer.gz

# No make sure all files have your ownership, just in case

sudo chown -Rv 1000:1000 /new/eric

#####################################

Now with damaged disks I do not like to do such bulk coping especially
if profiles are large and more than live session can handle. I would use
admin nautilus for two windows

sudo nautilus

# One at /old/eric, I prefer the from|old window on left

# Other at /new/eric or right

# CTRL+H show hidden

# Then selectively do coping in smaller portions subdirectory or groups
of files to not what I have recovered. application settings and prefs
with will be in ./config. You can sometimes recover profile preferences
with .gnome and .gnome2 directories. If they don't work later you can
change name or delete and pristine new ones will be auto-created

After the above using GUI the ownership of the files will be wrong so
use command line like above

sudo chown -Rv 1000:1000 /new/eric

NOTE(*)

I always tar backup my /etc directory which is not too big in routine
backups to save custom system level customization

You can also backup a list of very thing you have installed with:

dpkg --get-selections > my-installed-stuff

And restore them install dselect

sudo pat install deselect

Then run:
sudo dpkg --clear-selections
sudo dpkg --set-selections < my-installed-stuff
sudo apt-get -u dselect-upgrade

Lastly the obvious, having a robust backup plan for your stuff is always
better to do before you run into trouble ;-)
--
Take care,

Jonathan
-------------------
LITTLE WORKS STUDIO
http://www.LittleWorksStudio.com
Eric Jackson
2020-09-06 16:40:01 UTC
Permalink
Post by Jonathan N. Little
Post by Eric Jackson
Post by Jonathan N. Little
What you need to do was to use the Live Session to use Gparted to check
filesystem.  /dev/sda7 UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, your
home partition. That is the one that is really important. You can always
spin up a fresh install and just copy that home partition to the new
install and get a working system with all your data (if you can fix
UUID=b71b78e7-56a5-4221-a0c2-6f617a5b66e9, this should be your priority)
Right now, I have the drive in question backed up to the external USB
hard drive of the same size.  I have Gparted installed on my main
desktop and, after plugging in the USB drive, ran it.  It shows the
partitions, but a red exclamation point and unknown file system for
sda7.  When I right click to view information, I get
Warning
- The file system is damaged
- The file system is unknown to GParted
- There is no file system available (unformatted)
- The device entry /dev/sdg7 is missing
I'm not sure how to use Gparted to repair.  Do I need to reinstall the
data back to the laptop hard drive (and repair using Gparted from Live
CD), or can I use the Gparted already installed on my desktop to repair
it right now with the USB drive plugged into the desktop?
Okay FIRST if I understand you, you are testing the clonezilla COPY of
the original drive. If so, this is NOT what you ant to do since you said
during the clone you received an error message that you ignored. You
need to work on the ORIGINAL drive. You didn't overwrite the the
original did you? If so, you are most likely screwed.
After I cloned the copy of the original to the external USB drive, yes,
I did overwrite the drive with the most current back up.

I did try this process today using testdisk:

https://ubuverse.com/recover-a-disk-partition-with-testdisk-and-gparted-live/

Once it was finished and I disconnected the reconnected the USB drive,
it was now showing all partitions working, however, the partition in
question, although reading the correct size showed 0 Mb data. I decided
to try a Clonezilla back to the SSD drive in the laptop and get the same
emergency boot message. My guess is that all the data on home was
corrupted maybe during the first clone. You're right, probably could
have been salvaged from the original SSD drive.

Oh well, we tried! Luckily, the back up isn't as old I thought and,
aside from installing Zoom recently, I can't recall any other changes.

I just want to thank you again for your help and suggestions. Since I
tend to forget things like this a year from now, at least this post will
still be here should I run into a similar issue down the road.

I guess the good news is that I seldom use my laptops, having once again
favored the desktop over the last couple of years, so there wasn't much
loss thank goodness, but I do at least try and back up the desktop a lot
more frequently.
Jonathan N. Little
2020-09-06 17:46:01 UTC
Permalink
Testdisk is great and have used it with great success, but it really
works when you have either a corrupted partition that will not mount or
one that has be deleted. Doesn't undo if partition is overwritten with
new data.
--
Take care,

Jonathan
-------------------
LITTLE WORKS STUDIO
http://www.LittleWorksStudio.com
Michael Blake
2020-09-05 02:00:00 UTC
Permalink
I'm having trouble booting on 16.04.  Hangs at screen, then goes into
emergency boot mode.  I input password, then use mount -a to find that
it cannot find a device.  I then try sudo nano /etc/fstab to comment
out the device, but I am unable to save the fstab changes (read
only).  How can I get fstab to save?  Thanks.
Try this article- it is for 20.04 but I suspect the instructions applies to old versions as well.

How To Upgrade Ubuntu To 20.04 LTS Focal Fossa
<https://linuxconfig.org/how-to-upgrade-ubuntu-to-20-04-lts-focal-fossa>
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