Discussion:
Running from USB stick
(too old to reply)
Michael F. Stemper
2021-03-02 21:13:16 UTC
Permalink
Thanks to help obtained here, I now have a "loaner PC" up and
running from a USB stick. Two quirks I've encountered:

1. No wi-fi. Can't see my router, can't see my neighbor's
routers. I believe that this is because IP issues prevent
inclusion of wi-fi drivers in what Canonical sends out. Is
this correct? (It's not a show-stopper, since I have a 50'
Ethernet cable running across the family room, into the
mud room, down the basement steps, and over to the router.
I just hope that I don't trip over it.)

2. The resolution is messed up. I'm using a 1920x1080
USB-connected flat-screen monitor. However, when I go into
"System Settings/Displays", it shows "Built-in Display",
with the adjacent slider set to "On" and grayed out. Below
is a drop-down with "1024x768 (4:3)" as the only option. My
guess is that since the slider is grayed out, there is no
way to fix this short of installing for real, which I am
not allowed to do. Is this guess correct? Assuming that
I'm stuck with this, will it make an Impress presentation
over Zoom look bad to viewers, or is it strictly a
local problem?

Thanks as always,
--
Michael F. Stemper
There's no "me" in "team". There's no "us" in "team", either.
Mike Easter
2021-03-02 21:47:53 UTC
Permalink
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Thanks to help obtained here, I now have a "loaner PC" up and
We don't know what is running or what it is running on. Presumably it
is some Ubuntu.

Most 'buntus don't include inxi by default, but it is a very useful
script for hardware anbd other issues and it is in the repo/s

sudo apt install inxi

Unfortunately, many 'buntus also don't include the universe repo, which
is where inxi is.

sudo add-apt-repository universe

If you need to do that, I would also add multiverse w/ a similar
command. It is good that you have the ethernet because we can use it to
solve some other problems such as inxi and repositories.

Then

sudo apt update
Post by Michael F. Stemper
1. No wi-fi. Can't see my router, can't see my neighbor's
routers.
inxi can tell us what your network stuff is:

inxi -Nn

That will show us the wifi hardware and driver situation.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
I believe that this is because IP issues prevent inclusion of wi-fi
drivers in what Canonical sends out. Is this correct? (It's not a
show-stopper, since I have a 50' Ethernet cable running across the
family room, into the mud room, down the basement steps, and over to
the router. I just hope that I don't trip over it.)
Likely we can get the wifi going by using the ethernet.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
2. The resolution is messed up. I'm using a 1920x1080
USB-connected flat-screen monitor. However, when I go into
"System Settings/Displays", it shows "Built-in Display",
with the adjacent slider set to "On" and grayed out. Below
is a drop-down with "1024x768 (4:3)" as the only option. My
guess is that since the slider is grayed out, there is no
way to fix this short of installing for real, which I am
not allowed to do. Is this guess correct? Assuming that
I'm stuck with this, will it make an Impress presentation
over Zoom look bad to viewers, or is it strictly a
local problem?
I'm not sure what inxi can do about a usb monitor.

inxi -G

But there are other tools such as xrandr and lsusb and usbview which
probably isn't installed by default, but it is also in the universe
repository.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Thanks as always,
--
Mike Easter
Paul
2021-03-02 22:39:54 UTC
Permalink
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Thanks to help obtained here, I now have a "loaner PC" up and
1. No wi-fi. Can't see my router, can't see my neighbor's
routers. I believe that this is because IP issues prevent
inclusion of wi-fi drivers in what Canonical sends out. Is
this correct? (It's not a show-stopper, since I have a 50'
Ethernet cable running across the family room, into the
mud room, down the basement steps, and over to the router.
I just hope that I don't trip over it.)
2. The resolution is messed up. I'm using a 1920x1080
USB-connected flat-screen monitor. However, when I go into
"System Settings/Displays", it shows "Built-in Display",
with the adjacent slider set to "On" and grayed out. Below
is a drop-down with "1024x768 (4:3)" as the only option. My
guess is that since the slider is grayed out, there is no
way to fix this short of installing for real, which I am
not allowed to do. Is this guess correct? Assuming that
I'm stuck with this, will it make an Impress presentation
over Zoom look bad to viewers, or is it strictly a
local problem?
Thanks as always,
You could remaster the ISO.

I've done this twice.

The first time, was a while back, when Ubuntu had a
purpose-built remastering tool. I could remove LibreOffice
suite from the image, build a new image, and so on. I
removed LibreOffice, as a test of the tool, to see how
much collateral damage there would be. It worked!

Then, as far as I know, that tool no longer received
support, so it got removed.

The second time I did a remaster, it was a trivial remaster.
I needed to open the squashfs, add a firmware file for my
TV tuner card, then put the new squashfs onto the existing
ISO. There is a command (xorriso perhaps), around four lines
of text on the screen long (one of the longer command line
invocations you will ever do on a computer), for making a new ISO
from constituent parts. And I successfully made live
media, so I could boot Ubuntu and immediately watch TV
without a fuss.

Remastering will require research and work.

*******

The other issue with "living Live", is the storage media.
I have two dead 32GB Flash sticks here, which lasted a year
or so when hosting a persistent casper-rw file. The Flash
sticks don't seem to have wear leveling, even though
various web pages will imply that they do. USB flash sticks
are nowhere near as well designed as an SSD with TRIM.
Without wear leveling, focused writes to fixed locations
on the USB Flash, "burn through" the flash cells in that
area. It just does not seem possible to receive sufficient
assurance that this is not happening. I don't consider it
a fluke, when two TLC flash sticks die the same way.

Flash comes in flavors. SLC, MLC, TLC, QLC. SLC parts
are (or were) made by several companies. I was surprised
to find two of the companies were larger companies. SLC
is "the good stuff" -- it is flash suitable for persistent
Live media usage. The weird part, is none of the
companies is a marketing genius, the website tends to
hide, obscure or downright not carry technical information.
This makes it harder to trust vendors selling such material.
If an Amazon vendor says "we have SLC flash 32GB using
the following Toshiba chip", then you go and try to look
up the chip number, you're not likely to find a datasheet
for it.

Another issue, is the size of the persistent casper-rw. It
was limited to 4GB at one time. This is not nearly big
enough for any practical purpose. I've done some trivial
package management work and filled that space up, so it's
just not big enough. You might need to find some other
way to do that, or research whether a bigger version
of casper-rw methodology is available. The last poster here,
suggests an EXT2 partition with a label of "casper-rw" as
a substitute.

https://forums.linuxmint.com/viewtopic.php?t=210323

*******

SSD solutions are likely to be slightly too big to
fit in the USB flash form factor. Usually such USB
devices have a "blob" on the end, which is inconvenient.
And being on USB, you would want to research whether TRIM
is available as a passthru command on the device
(TRIM enlarges the free pool and makes it easier for the
SSD portion to consolidate storage).

With an SSD on USB, you could do a regular installation.
And the SSD would be less likely to burn through and
fail the first year.

Paul
Dirk T. Verbeek
2021-03-03 08:06:56 UTC
Permalink
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Thanks to help obtained here, I now have a "loaner PC" up and
1. No wi-fi. Can't see my router, can't see my neighbor's
routers. I believe that this is because IP issues prevent
inclusion of wi-fi drivers in what Canonical sends out. Is
this correct? (It's not a show-stopper, since I have a 50'
Ethernet cable running across the family room, into the
mud room, down the basement steps, and over to the router.
I just hope that I don't trip over it.)
2. The resolution is messed up. I'm using a 1920x1080
USB-connected flat-screen monitor. However, when I go into
"System Settings/Displays", it shows "Built-in Display",
with the adjacent slider set to "On" and grayed out. Below
is a drop-down with "1024x768 (4:3)" as the only option. My
guess is that since the slider is grayed out, there is no
way to fix this short of installing for real, which I am
not allowed to do. Is this guess correct? Assuming that
I'm stuck with this, will it make an Impress presentation
over Zoom look bad to viewers, or is it strictly a
local problem?
Thanks as always,
Many WIFI cards are supported out of the box, I've always been able to
access WIFI from the computers (Lenovo's, an Acer and HP) I have run
from USB.

For the rest, try to get inxi running or report the hardware in a
different way.
Paul
2021-03-03 11:39:02 UTC
Permalink
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Thanks to help obtained here, I now have a "loaner PC" up and
1. No wi-fi. Can't see my router, can't see my neighbor's
routers. I believe that this is because IP issues prevent
inclusion of wi-fi drivers in what Canonical sends out. Is
this correct? (It's not a show-stopper, since I have a 50'
Ethernet cable running across the family room, into the
mud room, down the basement steps, and over to the router.
I just hope that I don't trip over it.)
2. The resolution is messed up. I'm using a 1920x1080
USB-connected flat-screen monitor. However, when I go into
"System Settings/Displays", it shows "Built-in Display",
with the adjacent slider set to "On" and grayed out. Below
is a drop-down with "1024x768 (4:3)" as the only option. My
guess is that since the slider is grayed out, there is no
way to fix this short of installing for real, which I am
not allowed to do. Is this guess correct? Assuming that
I'm stuck with this, will it make an Impress presentation
over Zoom look bad to viewers, or is it strictly a
local problem?
Thanks as always,
I think I missed a point.

I don't think your stick has a persistent storage area.

With that, if you get the Wifi installed, it should
then work from one boot of the USB stick to the next.

Conventional persistent storage ends up being a 4GB file.
But I've just discovered (thanks to some extremely long
tutorial articles), that a recent copy of Rufus for
Windows makes this easy for Windows users seeking to
make Linux media. The persistence is created as a separate
EXT3 partition after the read-only partition. At least,
the Rufus interface claims it is EXT3.

https://rufus.ie/

Portable version

Name: rufus-3.13p.exe
Size: 1156152 bytes (1129 KiB)
SHA1: DA498E3E80186EE16620F56A601E19FBDC1F8551

This is a picture of my test stick, with the
persistence dialed up to 26GB.

Loading Image...

If I run "disktype" over it, this is the partition setup
that results from the operation. With Ubuntu 20.04.1 in
partition 1. Since Rufus is yet another "packager-type"
USB maker, it does not show the normal partition structure
of a hybrid ISO. But I would gather, this also led to the
freedom to add the persistence like that. Because the Rufus
designer is in control of his own fate, the partition
numbering is the same for the USB stick installs each time.

--- /dev/sde
Block device, size 29.22 GiB (31376707072 bytes)
DOS/MBR partition map
Partition 1: 3.221 GiB (3458359296 bytes, 6754608 sectors from 2048, bootable)
Type 0x0C (Win95 FAT32 (LBA))
SYSLINUX boot loader
FAT32 file system (hints score 4 of 5)
Volume size 3.217 GiB (3454156800 bytes, 210825 clusters of 16 KiB)
Partition 2: 26.00 GiB (27917277696 bytes, 54525933 sectors from 6756656)
Type 0x83 (Linux)
Ext3 file system
Volume name "casper-rw"
UUID 69FD8B2A-C16A-8B42-9C60-6DDC9C4FE0E9 (DCE, v8)
Volume size 26.00 GiB (27917275136 bytes, 6815741 blocks of 4 KiB)

Boot of the prepared stick failed. Typical example here, doesn't match my failure.

https://askubuntu.com/questions/1273714/bug-official-tutorial-for-creating-a-bootable-usb-stick-for-windows-does-not-w

I had to re-copy the eight files out of the casper
folder on the Ubuntu ISO, into the casper folder on the USB stick.
It appears only about 25% of the filesystem.squashfs got copied.

I just booted the UEFI flavor of the stick, after fixing it up.

Next issue, is it needs this to be done from Terminal.
This is the clever minds at Ubuntu making you set your
own synaptic up. The "apt-get" could be shortened to "apt".

sudo add-apt-repository universe
sudo add-apt-repository multiverse
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install synaptic
sudo synaptic

That's so I could install a small application like "disktype"
and put some materials in the casper-rw partition, then check
from another OS after a reboot.

*******

It does not shut down cleanly. Rapid tapping on ctrl-alt-delete
gets its attention. "seven entries of ctrl-alt-delete in two seconds"
Or I suppose you could hit the power button, as the content
is beyond redemption at this point one way or another.

Loading Image...

I could see some content within sda2 indicating it is
recording material from one session to the next. By having
that capability, once you get the Wifi firmware installed,
the Wifi should work on every boot.

This is *not* a normal full install. It's still a LiveUSB.
Don't ask me how well it handles booting on different
computers one after another. I could see a potential for
video card issues running this way (if you insist on using
a proprietary driver, instead of using the default graphics
drivers). If you use Restricted Drivers, it might be a good
idea to "marry" this persistent USB stick to the one machine
setup.

Paul
Michael F. Stemper
2021-03-08 13:56:28 UTC
Permalink
Post by Paul
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Thanks to help obtained here, I now have a "loaner PC" up and
1. No wi-fi. Can't see my router, can't see my neighbor's
2. The resolution is messed up. I'm using a 1920x1080
I think I missed a point.
I don't think your stick has a persistent storage area.
I don't think so, no. I didn't even know that was an option.

I want to thank you for all of the work you did in crafting this
reply. However, during a dry run with the loaner computer on Wednesday,
I encountered still other issues. I decided that I was in a potentially
bottomless rabbit hole.

Rather than pursuing this further, I decided to just focus on my
presentation and hope that one of my own computers would survive the
twenty minutes needed for my talk.

Turned out to be a good decision, because:
a. I ended up with a higher-quality presentation.
b. My computer survived nearly half an hour in a Zoom session.
Post by Paul
Conventional persistent storage ends up being a 4GB file.
But I've just discovered (thanks to some extremely long
tutorial articles), that a recent copy of Rufus for
Windows makes this easy for Windows users seeking to
make Linux media.
Just to make sure that I understand correctly: this is only for
Windows? As a purely linux user, this isn't useful for me?
Post by Paul
https://rufus.ie/
   Portable version
   Name: rufus-3.13p.exe
   Size: 1156152 bytes (1129 KiB)
   SHA1: DA498E3E80186EE16620F56A601E19FBDC1F8551
Looks cool; if it's actually cross-platform, I'll bookmark it.

Again, thanks for your kind assistance; it's a shame that I
didn't end up making use of it.
--
Michael F. Stemper
Galatians 3:28
Mike Easter
2021-03-08 16:25:48 UTC
Permalink
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Post by Paul
I don't think your stick has a persistent storage area.
I don't think so, no. I didn't even know that was an option.
Post by Paul
Conventional persistent storage ends up being a 4GB file.
But I've just discovered (thanks to some extremely long
tutorial articles), that a recent copy of Rufus for
Windows makes this easy for Windows users seeking to
make Linux media.
Rufus can do persistence for Ubuntu-like .iso/s, but not others.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Just to make sure that I understand correctly: this is only for
Windows? As a purely linux user, this isn't useful for me?
The persistence USB maker that I use for Ubuntu and ubuntu-like such as
Mint is mkusb which is not in the standard repo/s but is available in a
.ppa.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Post by Paul
    Name: rufus-3.13p.exe
Looks cool; if it's actually cross-platform, I'll bookmark it.
Rufus is not cross-platform. The dev says he doesn't intend to.

The most cross-platform USB maker is Balena Etcher, Win Mac Linux32/64.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Persistence currently only works with Ubuntu and Debian Live. For persistence to work, the distro maintainers need to properly support it in their boot script, and few distros currently do (but Rufus does propose the option just in case, because it's impossible to tell if a distro does support persistence or not).
Also, distributions that are derivatives of Ubuntu need to make sure that they have applied the bugfix for https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/casper/+bug/1489855 which was only applied recently in Ubuntu, else persistence will not work.
In other words, please feel free to contact your specific Linux distro maintainers and ask them to follow either what Ubuntu does or what Debian Live does to enable persistence, because at this stage, I am not planning to add support in Rufus for any other methods.
--
Mike Easter
Paul
2021-03-08 16:56:36 UTC
Permalink
Post by Mike Easter
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Post by Paul
I don't think your stick has a persistent storage area.
I don't think so, no. I didn't even know that was an option.
Post by Paul
Conventional persistent storage ends up being a 4GB file.
But I've just discovered (thanks to some extremely long
tutorial articles), that a recent copy of Rufus for
Windows makes this easy for Windows users seeking to
make Linux media.
Rufus can do persistence for Ubuntu-like .iso/s, but not others.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Just to make sure that I understand correctly: this is only for
Windows? As a purely linux user, this isn't useful for me?
The persistence USB maker that I use for Ubuntu and ubuntu-like such as
Mint is mkusb which is not in the standard repo/s but is available in a
.ppa.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Post by Paul
Name: rufus-3.13p.exe
Looks cool; if it's actually cross-platform, I'll bookmark it.
Rufus is not cross-platform. The dev says he doesn't intend to.
The most cross-platform USB maker is Balena Etcher, Win Mac Linux32/64.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Persistence currently only works with Ubuntu and Debian Live. For
persistence to work, the distro maintainers need to properly support
it in their boot script, and few distros currently do (but Rufus does
propose the option just in case, because it's impossible to tell if a
distro does support persistence or not).
Also, distributions that are derivatives of Ubuntu need to make sure
that they have applied the bugfix for
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+source/casper/+bug/1489855 which
was only applied recently in Ubuntu, else persistence will not work.
In other words, please feel free to contact your specific Linux distro
maintainers and ask them to follow either what Ubuntu does or what
Debian Live does to enable persistence, because at this stage, I am
not planning to add support in Rufus for any other methods.
Linux has a good supply of candidates to evaluate, for making
USB sticks.

A Windows user, seeking to branch out to Linux (and doing this
for the first time), doesn't have a lot of options. But Rufus is
one that stands out as an option. And using it, I now have a
32GB USB stick, with 26GB of that available as a persistent
EXT3 partition. My /home stays there from run to run.

Persistence is not good for TLC-based USB sticks (while info pages
state USB sticks have wear leveling, I'm not convinced). It's preferable
for long term usage, to be using MLC or SLC USB sticks. But the
usual suspects don't sell sticks like that, any more. And all
the suppliers today of MLC or SLC sticks, we don't know a thing
about their honesty. Generally, if you buy an SLC stick and it
has a capacity of only 2GB (useless!), those really are SLC
sticks, and those may be used to boot industrial computers.
But when you see a 32GB SLC stick for sale on Amazon,
32GB happens to be the sweet spot for TLC chips, and it would
be all-too-tempting to cheat and use the inferior flash type
and make "mondo-profit" from your fraud.

Paul
Mike Easter
2021-03-08 17:20:18 UTC
Permalink
Post by Paul
A Windows user, seeking to branch out to Linux (and doing this
for the first time), doesn't have a lot of options. But Rufus is
one that stands out as an option. And using it, I now have a
32GB USB stick, with 26GB of that available as a persistent
EXT3 partition. My /home stays there from run to run.
Rufus is an excellent USB maker; it is my preferred for putting a single
.iso on a USB stick.
Post by Paul
Persistence is not good for TLC-based USB sticks (while info pages
state USB sticks have wear leveling, I'm not convinced). It's preferable
for long term usage, to be using MLC or SLC USB sticks. But the
usual suspects don't sell sticks like that, any more. And all
the suppliers today of MLC or SLC sticks, we don't know a thing
about their honesty. Generally, if you buy an SLC stick and it
has a capacity of only 2GB (useless!), those really are SLC
sticks, and those may be used to boot industrial computers.
But when you see a 32GB SLC stick for sale on Amazon,
32GB happens to be the sweet spot for TLC chips, and it would
be all-too-tempting to cheat and use the inferior flash type
and make "mondo-profit" from your fraud.
A single-level cell (SLC) Flash memory may have a lifetime of about 50,000 to 100,000 program/erase cycles.[4
Typically, as the 'level' count increases, performance (speed and reliability) and consumer cost decrease; however this correlation can vary between manufacturers.
MLC flash may have a lifetime of about 1,000 to 10,000 program/erase cycles.
But; the article has a LOT more to say than that, so my cites above
don't do justice to the article itself
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multi-level_cell
--
Mike Easter
Michael F. Stemper
2021-03-08 21:09:16 UTC
Permalink
Post by Paul
Post by Mike Easter
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Post by Paul
I don't think your stick has a persistent storage area.
I don't think so, no. I didn't even know that was an option.
Post by Paul
Conventional persistent storage ends up being a 4GB file.
But I've just discovered (thanks to some extremely long
tutorial articles), that a recent copy of Rufus for
Windows makes this easy for Windows users seeking to
make Linux media.
Rufus can do persistence for Ubuntu-like .iso/s, but not others.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Just to make sure that I understand correctly: this is only for
Windows? As a purely linux user, this isn't useful for me?
The persistence USB maker that I use for Ubuntu and ubuntu-like such
as Mint is mkusb which is not in the standard repo/s but is available
in a .ppa.
Post by Michael F. Stemper
Post by Paul
    Name: rufus-3.13p.exe
Looks cool; if it's actually cross-platform, I'll bookmark it.
Rufus is not cross-platform.  The dev says he doesn't intend to.
I suppose that if I'd noticed the ".exe" on the end, I would have known
this.
Post by Paul
Linux has a good supply of candidates to evaluate, for making
USB sticks.
A Windows user, seeking to branch out to Linux (and doing this
for the first time), doesn't have a lot of options. But Rufus is
one that stands out as an option. And using it, I now have a
32GB USB stick, with 26GB of that available as a persistent
EXT3 partition. My /home stays there from run to run.
But, if they just want something to boot from, they can still go
to Ubuntu directly, as long as they don't care about persistence,
correct?
Post by Paul
Persistence is not good for TLC-based USB sticks (while info pages
state USB sticks have wear leveling, I'm not convinced). It's preferable
for long term usage, to be using MLC or SLC USB sticks. But the
usual suspects don't sell sticks like that, any more. And all
the suppliers today of MLC or SLC sticks, we don't know a thing
about their honesty. Generally, if you buy an SLC stick and it
has a capacity of only 2GB (useless!), those really are SLC
sticks, and those may be used to boot industrial computers.
Interesting. I never heard about any of this before. I'll need to
dig around and see if I can figure out what kind(s) of sticks I have.


Thanks again,
--
Michael F. Stemper
The FAQ for rec.arts.sf.written is at
<http://leepers.us/evelyn/faqs/sf-written.htm>
Please read it before posting.
Paul
2021-03-09 00:48:55 UTC
Permalink
Post by Michael F. Stemper
But, if they just want something to boot from, they can still go
to Ubuntu directly, as long as they don't care about persistence,
correct?
Sure. With hybrid ISO images, they can be "dd.exe" transferred
to the USB stick. The port (dd.exe) is here. There will be
no persistence, your USB stick will be read-only, and quite
safe in terms of wear issues.

(Instructions)

http://www.chrysocome.net/dd

(Download)

http://www.chrysocome.net/downloads/dd-0.6beta3.zip

With USB sticks as the source, that particular version
I picked, has a bug regarding detecting the end of a
USB stick when copying stuff off it. This can be
corrected by using the Block Size and Count parameters,
to more precisely transfer the content. I have not checked
later releases, for a bug fix for that.

I keep a copy of factor.exe (same as the Linux factor),
for factoring the ISO size, and figuring out whether it
has only been padded to a multiple of 2048 bytes (optical
disc sector size). Or, whether it's padded to the nearest
1048576 bytes. The latter is a better candidate for
transfer via some versions of "dd". At least one dd-like
tool, uses auto-size-adjustment for the best transfer
size and rate, and it ensures the transfer is complete.
The "dd.exe" above, you should use the block size and count
to ensure the transfer is complete.

If you do this

dd if=some-source of=some-destination

then the transfer block size is 512 bytes, and that does
not match the size of a flash page all that well.

Something which might be the page size, or a power of two
multiple larger than the page size, might afford a
better transfer pattern to a USB stick.

dd if=some-source of=some-destination bs=65536 count=20480

On Windows, you need an Administrator Command Prompt
window, as elevation is needed to "dd" to physical devices
at the sector level.

Burning the ISO with Imgburn in Windows to a DVD, is a doddle,
and USB sticks is just asking for hair loss. Still, it's
not that hard to do. Actually, Windows users have a tendency to
"drag and drop" the damn ISO onto the Windows burning interface,
doing the wrong kind of burn (multi-session) and screwing up
at least one DVD blank when they start. That's why you suggest
to them, starting with a small packet of DVD blanks, for the
ones they'll be ruining. We all have to start somewhere.

Paul
Wes Newell
2021-03-09 15:59:14 UTC
Permalink
If you want to run from a usb stick, then you should actully use the
install usb stick to install the system to a blank usb stick, treating
it as just another disk drive. Once the system is installed, then remove
the installation stick and boot from the system stick (disk).
--
http://wesnewell.ddns.net
https://github.com/wesnewell/Functionality
Mike Easter
2021-03-09 16:11:49 UTC
Permalink
Post by Wes Newell
If you want to run from a usb stick, then you should actully use the
install usb stick to install the system to a blank usb stick, treating
it as just another disk drive. Once the system is installed, then remove
the installation stick and boot from the system stick (disk).
My limited experiences w/ conventional install to USB stick have not
been good; where 'conventional install' is like that of installing to hdd.

My experiences w/ different forms of live w/ persistence have been
better. I think I like Puppy's method best, but mkusb is satisfactory.
--
Mike Easter
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